In the name of of Allah the Merciful

Acute Care Nursing: Recognising and Responding to Medical Emergencies

Ian Pete, Helen Dutton, 2020012414, 2020012415, 9781138352001, 9781138352018, 9780429434938, 978-1138352001, 978-1138352018, 978-0429434938

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English | 2020 | PDF

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List of figures
List of tables
List of contributors
Preface
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1 Assessment and recognition of emergencies in acute care
Introduction
Recognition of the problem
The changing nature of acute health care delivery
Where are we now?
National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2
Assessment priorities – the ABCDE approach
NEWS 2 to identify deterioration risk and clinical response
Escalating care
Additional considerations when using NEWS 2
Moving care forward
Chain of prevention
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Chapter 2 Vulnerability in the acutely ill patient
Introduction
Vulnerability
The Law
The Equality Act 2010
Key terms
Safeguarding
Vulnerable adults
What constitutes abuse?
Kinds of abuse
Who are the abusers?
What justifies intervention?
Taking action and raising concerns
Myths and Facts
Ethical considerations
Advocacy
Care with confidence
Delirium
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Further reading
Care Inspectorate
Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales
Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority
Care Quality Commission
Chapter 3 The cell and tissues
Introduction
The cell and its environment
Basic structure of cells
Cytoplasm
Cell cycle and cell division
Energy production in the cell
Tissues
Tissue injury
Tissue repair
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Further reading
Chapter 4 Body fluids and electrolytes
Introduction
Physiology of fluid and electrolyte balance
Transport processes of solutes and water
Mechanisms which regulate body fluid balance
Fluid and electrolyte balance
Nursing assessment of fluid and electrolyte status in the patient
Maximising fluid and electrolyte balance
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Chapter 5 The patient with acute respiratory problems
Introduction
Applied respiratory physiology
Acute respiratory problems
Respiratory failure
Respiratory assessment
Physical examination
Arterial blood gases
Maximising respiratory status
Chest physiotherapy
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Chapter 6 The patient with acute cardiovascular problems
Introduction
Applied physiology
The heart
Layers of the heart
The coronary circulation
The right coronary artery tree
The left coronary artery tree
Cardiac conduction system
The cardiac cycle
Cardiac output
Blood pressure
Regulation of blood pressure
The blood
The arterial and venous systems
Common disorders of cardiovascular system
Right ventricular failure
Cardiovascular assessment
Acute cardiovascular problems: recognition and treatment
Hypovolaemic shock
Obstructive shock
Distributive shock
Interventions to monitor and support cardiovascular status
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Further reading
Chapter 7 Recognition and management of cardiopulmonary arrest
Introduction
Airway assessment and management
Chain of survival
Adjuncts to aid ventilation
Defibrillation
During CPR
Reversible causes
Post-resuscitation care
Decisions to stop resuscitation
Presence of relatives at resuscitation attempts
‘Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation’ (DNACPR) orders
Caring for the bereaved
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Chapter 8 The patient with acute renal problems
Introduction
Gross anatomy of the kidney
Accessory structures of excretion
Applied physiology
When things go wrong – common acute renal problems
Renal assessment
Optimising renal status
Holistic nursing care for patients with renal dysfunction
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Further reading
Chapter 9 The patient with acute neurological problems
Introduction
Applied anatomy and physiology of the nervous system
Cells of the nervous system
The brain
Cranial nerves
The spinal cord and spinal nerves
The autonomic nervous system
Neurological emergencies
Maximising neurological status
Meningitis
Acute stroke
Seizures and epilepsy and status epilepticus
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Chapter 10 The patient with acute gastrointestinal problems
Introduction
Applied physiology
Acute problems/emergencies
Nursing assessment
Maximising GI status
Pharmacology for GI problems
Nutritional support
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Chapter 11 The patient with acute endocrine problems
Introduction
Applied physiology
Structure and function of the endocrine glands
Acute endocrine problems and emergencies
Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA)
Assessment and physical examination
Maximising endocrine status
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Further reading
Chapter 12 The immune and lymphatic systems, infection and sepsis
Introduction
Applied anatomy and physiology
Microorganisms
Acute problems related to the immune system
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Further reading
Chapter 13 The safe transfer of acutely ill patients
Introduction
Ethico-legal issues
Nursing preparation for transfer
Conclusion
Glossary
References
Index