Why can two people use a drug and one person becomes addicted while the other does not? Determinants of Addiction: Neurobiological, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sociocultural Factors unravels the complexities underlying addiction to understand how individual factors at the genetic, cellular, anatomical, cognitive–behavioral, and sociocultural level can influence susceptibility to substance use disorders. The first section reviews the neurobiological determinants of addiction and examines how drugs hijack the reward pathway and alter numerous neurotransmitter systems such as dopamine. The second section covers the behavioral–cognitive determinants of addiction such a conditioning, memory processes, and decision-making. The final section examines individual differences in addiction vulnerability, with a focus on personality factors, sociocultural factors, sex/gender, and stress. The book references commonly used drugs such as nicotine, ethanol (alcohol), opioids, and cocaine.