Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem affecting over 415 million people in the world. Extensive research over the decades and the recent discovery of new medicines have revolutionized our understanding and treatment of both type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes mellitus. This book contains selected topics that describe recent advances in research, and state of the art treatment of the two types of diabetes mellitus and their complications. The topics encompass epidemiology and pathogenesis of diabetes, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and related complications. The chapters contain essential background materials, as well as recent advances in researches in different aspects of diabetes mellitus. The books is expected to be useful for researchers, research students, as well as for the clinicians engaged in diabetes care and diabetes research.