بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

دانلود کتاب روانشناسی و کار: درآمدی بر روانشناسی صنعتی و سازمانی

Psychology and Work: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Donald M. Truxillo, Talya N. Bauer, Berrin Erdogan, 0367151278, 9780367151270

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زبان کتاب: انگلیسی
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Psychology and Work is a new edition of the award-winning textbook written for introductory Industrial and Organizational (I-O) Psychology classes. This book makes the core topics of I-O Psychology clear, relevant, and accessible to students through its dynamic design. The real-world examples from the perspectives of employees and employers highlight how I-O Psychology is applied to today’s workplace
Psychology and Work, Second Edition covers the core areas of I-O Psychology including an overview of the field and its history. The topics covered include up-to-date research methods and statistics; job analysis and criterion measurement; performance appraisal; personnel selection; training and development; work motivation; leadership; job attitudes and emotions, occupational health psychology, safety, and stress; teams; and organizational structure, culture, and change. Throughout the text, an emphasis is placed on essential issues for today’s workplace such as diversity and inclusion, the evolving role of big data and analytics, legal issues, and the changing nature of work

Preface
About the Authors
Part I Background
Chapter 1 Industrial and Organizational Psychology : The Profession and Its History
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
The Major Areas of I-O Psychology: Industrial and Organizational
I-O Psychology Professional Organizations
Training in I-O Psychology
The Scientist-Practitioner Model
Where Do I-O Psychologists Work?
Subspecialties in I-O Psychology
Communicating I-O Psychology Research Findings: Journals and Conferences
A Brief History of I-O Psychology
Early Years and World War I
Early Psychologists and the Study of Work
Scientific Management
Human Relations Era (1927–1940s)
World War II (1941–1945)
Civil Rights Era (1964–Present)
High-Tech HR Era (2000–Present)
Multinational Organizations
International Practice
Changes in the Nature of Work
Diversity and Inclusion
Aging, Age-Diverse Workforce
Humanitarian Work Psychology
Occupational Health Psychology
I-O Is a Growing Field
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 2 Research Methods
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Theory, Research, and the Research Process
Relationship Between Theory and Research
Basic Research Concepts: Independent and Dependent Variables
Research Designs
True Experiments
Field Experiments
Laboratory Experiments
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Other Designs Used in Organizational Research
Correlational Studies
Addressing Causality and Inflated Relationships in Correlational Studies
Which Research Designs Are Best?
Data Collection Methods
Statistics
Basic Statistical Concepts
Correlation: A Test of the Relationship Between Variables
Linear Regression: Predicting One Score From Another
Differences Between Two Means: T-Tests
Differences Among Three or More Means: ANOVA
Summarizing the Findings of Multiple Studies: Meta-Analysis
Measurement of Variables
Types of Measurement Scales
Reliability: Dependability or Consistency of Measurement
Test–Retest Reliability
Parallel Forms Reliability
Internal Consistency Estimates
Interrater Reliability
Some Final Words About Reliability
Validity: What a Scale Is Actually Measuring
Ethical Issues
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Part II Industrial Psychology
Chapter 3 Job Analysis
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
How Are Job Analysis Data Used?
Some Job Analysis Terminology
Getting Started: Sources of Job Analysis Data to Use as a Starting Point
Existing Job Analysis Data
Government Sources
Job Analysis Data Collection Methods
Preparing SMEs for the Job Analysis
Job Analysis Frameworks
Work-Oriented Job Analysis Methods
Task-KSA Analysis
KSA Criticality
Task-KSA Linkage Survey
Summary of Task-KSA Analysis
Other Work-Oriented Job Analysis Methods
Worker-Oriented Methods
Position Analysis Questionnaire
Competency Modeling
Other Job Analysis Methods
Assessing and Assuring the Quality of Job Analysis Data
Reliability of Job Analysis Data
Detecting and Removing SMEs Who Are Providing Poor Ratings
Who Are the Best SMEs?
Demographics
Experience
Job Performance
Job Incumbents Versus Others
Are Tasks or KSAs More Susceptible to Error?
Training SMEs
Job Evaluation: Job Analysis for Pay Structures
Internal Equity
External Equity
Other Considerations
Comparable Worth
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 4 Measuring Work Performance: Criterion Measures
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Conceptual Versus Actual Criteria
Conceptual Criteria: Definition and Challenges
Actual Criteria: Definition and Challenges
The Criterion Problem
Choosing Good Actual Criterion Measures
Issues When Deciding Which Criterion Measures to Use
Changes in Job Performance Over Time
Typical Versus Maximum Performance
Other Characteristics of Good Criteria
Multiple Versus Composite Criteria
Dimensions of Job Performance
What Are Some Types of Actual Criterion Measures?
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 5 Performance Appraisal: Measurement and Management of Performance
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
What Is Performance Appraisal?
The Dual Nature of Performance Appraisals in Organizations
What Are the Main Purposes of a Performance Appraisal System?
Characteristics of an Effective Performance Appraisal System
Strategic Fit
Content Validity
Accuracy
User Reactions: Perceived Fairness and Usefulness
Practicality
Design and Measurement Considerations in Performance Appraisals
What Should Be Measured? Trait, Behavior, and Outcome Appraisals
Absolute and Relative Rating Scales
Graphic Rating Scale
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)
Essay Appraisal Form
Straight Ranking
Forced Distribution
Who Should Be the Rater?
Managers
Peer Appraisals
Customers
Subordinates
Self-Appraisal
360-Degree Feedback
Conducting the Performance Appraisal
Observation and Recording of Performance
Feedback and Coaching Throughout the Year
Rating of the Employee: Errors and Biases
Range Restriction Errors
Contrast Error
Halo Effect
Similarity and Liking
Recency Error
Techniques to Minimize the Effects of Appraisal Errors
Training
Calibration Meetings
Diary Keeping
Using Objective Appraisals
Using Multiple Raters
Conducting the Performance Appraisal Meeting
Conditions Enabling High-Quality Feedback
What to Do Before the Meeting
What to Do During the Meeting
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 6 Personnel Selection: Tests and Other Selection Procedures
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Key Terminology
Formats of Different Personnel Selection Procedures
Personnel Selection Procedures
Tests of Cognitive Abilities
General Cognitive Ability (g)
Tests of Specific Cognitive Abilities
Psychomotor Tests
Personality Tests
Background
Issues Associated With the Use of Personality Tests
Other Personality Constructs
Integrity Tests
Interviews
Unstructured vs. Structured Interviews
Interview Structure
Legal Issues
Current Issues
Work Samples and Related Predictors
Work Sample Tests
Assessment Centers
Situational Judgment Tests
Biodata and Other Personal History Measures
Biodata
Ratings of Training and Experience
Résumés
Reference Checks
Physical Ability Tests
Other Selection Procedures
Credit History
Vocational Interests
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 7 Personnel Selection: Strategic Issues in the Deployment of Selection Systems
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Recruitment
Recruitment Methods
What Factors Affect Applicant Attraction to the Organization?
Validity of Selection Procedures
Content Validity
Construct Validity
Criterion-Related Validity
Predictive Validity
Concurrent Validity
Advantages and Disadvantages of Predictive and Concurrent Validity
Cross-Validation
Validity Generalization Versus Situational Specificity
Legal Issues in Hiring
Some Background and Definitions
Discrimination: Disparate Treatment Versus Adverse Impact
Adverse Impact Case Step 1: Plaintiff Demonstrates Adverse Impact
Adverse Impact Case Step 2: Employer Demonstrates Test Validity
Adverse Impact Case Step 3: Plaintiff Demonstrates Other Predictors Were Available
Strategies for Administering Predictors and Using Predictor Data
Which Predictors Should Be Considered?
Deciding Predictor Weights
Weighting Predictors Using Regression: An Example
Administering Predictors: Sequencing and Setting Cut-Off Scores
Sequencing of Predictors
Setting Cut-Off Scores
Banding
Accuracy in Prediction
Predictor Utility
Applicant Reactions: Considering the Job Applicant’s Experience
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 8 Training and Development
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
The Training Needs Assessment Process
Organizational Analysis
Job Analysis
Person Analysis
Developing Training Goals
Demographic Analysis
Facilitating Training Effectiveness: The Trainee, Trainer, and Context
Individual Differences
The Organizational Context
Both the Trainee and the Context: Trainee Motivation
Learning Concepts to Address in Training Design and Delivery
Training Methods
On-the-Job Training
Machine Simulators
Lecture
Programmed Instruction
Behavior Modeling Training
Diversity Training
Managerial Training Methods
New Employee Onboarding
Online Training (e-Learning)
Team Training
Evaluating Training Methods
Training Criteria: Measures of Training Effectiveness
Designing a Training Evaluation
Threats to Experimental Validity
Threats to Internal Validity
Threats to External Validity
Training Evaluation (Research) Designs
Pre-Experiments
True Experiments
Quasi-Experiments
So Which Designs Should You Use?
What Is the Purpose of the Evaluation?
What Are the Available Organizational Resources? What Are the Constraints?
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Part III Organizational Psychology
Chapter 9 Work Motivation
Learning Goals for This Chapter
What Is Motivation?
Theories of Work Motivation
Needs-Based Theories of Work Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs
ERG Theory
Two-Factor Theory
Acquired Needs Theory
Self-Determination Theory
Self-Assessment: Rate Your Motivation
Scoring
Summary of Needs-Based Theories
Process-Based Theories
Equity Theory
Self-Assessment: Rate Your Equity Preference
Scoring
Organizational Justice Theory
Expectancy Theory
Summary of Process-Based Theories
Application-Based Theories of Work Motivation
Goal-Setting Theory
Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Orientation
Job Characteristics Theory
Job Redesign
Reinforcement and Incentives
Compensation
Summary of Application-Based Theories
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 10 Leadership at Work
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
What Is Leadership?
Where Does the Power to Lead Come From?
Outcomes of Leadership
Who Are Leaders? The Trait Approach to Leadership
Personality and Leadership
Intelligence and Leadership
Gender and Leadership
Race and Leadership
What Do Leaders Do? The Behavioral Approach
Traits or Behaviors: What Matters More?
Contingency Approaches to Leadership
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
Vroom’s Normative Model of Leadership
Contemporary Approaches to Leadership
Transformational Leadership Theory
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Authentic Leadership
Servant Leadership
Abusive Supervision
How Do We Cultivate Good Leadership? Leadership Development
360 Feedback, Coaching, and Mentoring
Developmental Assignments
Formal Leadership Training
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 11 Job Attitudes and Emotions at Work
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Why Do Job Attitudes Matter?
Key Job Attitudes: Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Measurement of Job Attitudes
Measures of Job Satisfaction
Measures of Organizational Commitment
Antecedents of Job Attitudes
Job Characteristics
Leadership
Stress
Perceived Organizational Support
Organizational Justice
Personality
Person–Environment Fit
How About Pay?
Consequences of Job Attitudes
Performance
Absenteeism
Turnover
Counterproductive Work Behaviors
Unit Performance
Newcomers: An Early Opportunity to Influence Job Attitudes
Emotions at Work
Felt Emotions and Their Consequences
Display of Emotions and Emotional Labor
Individual Differences: Emotional Intelligence
Conclusion
Additional Readings
References
Chapter 12 Stress and Occupational Health Psychology
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Stress
The Stress Process
General Adaptation Syndrome
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
Conservation of Resources Model
Job Demands–Resources Model
Challenge and Hindrance Stressors
Stressors: Antecedents of Strain
Role Demands
Information Overload
Work–Life Tradeoffs
Life Changes
Interpersonal Challenges
Evaluation Apprehension
Consequences of Stress
Physiological Consequences of Job Stress
Psychological Consequences of Job Stress
Behavioral Consequences of Stress
Individual Differences
Individual Approaches to Stress Management
Diet
Exercise
Sleep
Time Management
Social Support
Organizational Approaches to Support Worker Health and Well-Being
Healthy Work Environments
Flexible Work Arrangements
Recovery Opportunities
Employee Resource Programs
Workplace Safety
Measuring Workplace Safety
The Antecedents of Safety Behavior
Environment Factors
Individual Factors
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 13 Teams at Work
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Group Dynamics
Types of Groups
The Life Cycle of a Group
Types of Teams
Factors Related to Team Effectiveness
Group Composition
Group Size
Group Tenure
Group Personality
Group Diversity
Group Processes
Teamwork Skills
Group Norms
Roles
Conflict
Group Affect and Cognition
Group Cohesion
Psychological Safety
Team Efficacy
Decision-Making in Groups and Teams
The Decision-Making Process
Brainstorming
Groupthink
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Chapter 14 Organizational Structure, Culture, and Change
Learning Goals for This Chapter
Introduction
Organization Theory and Design
Historical Perspectives On the Design of Organizations
Dimensions of Organizational Structure
Formalization
Centralization
Departmentalization
Span of Control
Types of Organizational Structures
Contemporary Organizational Structures
Matrix Structure
Lattice Structure
Virtual Organizations
Organizational Culture and Climate
Culture or Climate: Is There a Difference?
Dimensions of Culture
Why Does Culture Matter?
Culture Matters for Employee Attitudes and Behaviors
Culture Signals What Matters
Culture Matters for Organizational Performance
How Can We Measure a Company’s Culture?
Culture Creation
Founder’s Values
History
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA)
Newcomer Onboarding
Leadership Style
Reward Systems
Organizational Change
OD Interventions
Factors Shaping Employee Reactions to Change
Habits
Personality
Trust in the Organization and Management
Personal Impact of Change
Features of Change Implementation
Change Models
Lewin’s Three-Stage Model of Change Implementation
Kotter’s Eight-Step Model of Change
Conclusion
Additional Reading
References
Name Index
Organizations Index
Subject Index